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Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 1

©2000 by Bruce Eckel

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7: Function Overloading & Default Arguments

One of the important features in any programming language is the convenient use of names.

When you create an object (a variable), you give a name to a region of storage. A function is a name for an action. By making up names to describe the system at hand, you create a program that is easier for people to understand and change. It’s a lot like writing prose – the goal is to communicate with your readers.

A problem arises when mapping the concept of nuance in human language onto a programming language. Often, the same word expresses a number of different meanings, depending on context. That is, a single word has multiple meanings – it’s overloaded. This is very useful, especially when it comes to trivial differences. You say “wash the shirt, wash the car.” It would be silly to be forced to say, “shirt_wash the shirt, car_wash the car” just so the listener doesn’t have to make any distinction about the action performed. Human languages have built-in redundancy, so even if you miss a few words, you can still determine the meaning. We don’t need unique identifiers – we can deduce meaning from context.

Most programming languages, however, require that you have a unique identifier for each function. If you have three different types of data that you want to print: int, char, and float, you generally have to create three different function names, for example, print_int( ), print_char( ), and print_float( ). This loads extra work on you as you write the program, and on readers as they try to understand it.

In C++, another factor forces the overloading of function names: the constructor. Because the constructor’s name is predetermined by the name of the class, it would seem that there can be only one constructor. But what if you want to create an object in more than one way? For example, suppose you build a class that can initialize itself in a standard way and also by reading information from a file. You need two constructors, one that takes no arguments (the default constructor) and one that takes a string as an argument, which is the name of the file to initialize the object. Both are constructors, so they must have the same name: the name of the class. Thus, function overloading is essential to allow the same function name – the constructor in this case – to be used with different argument types.

Although function overloading is a must for constructors, it’s a general convenience and can be used with any function, not just class member functions. In addition, function overloading means that if you have two libraries that contain functions of the same name, they won’t conflict as long as the argument lists are different. We’ll look at all these factors in detail throughout this chapter.

The theme of this chapter is convenient use of function names. Function overloading allows you to use the same name for different functions, but there’s a second way to make calling a function more convenient. What if you’d like to call the same function in different ways? When functions have long argument lists, it can become tedious to write (and confusing to read) the function calls when most of the arguments are the same for all the calls. A commonly used feature in C++ is called default arguments. A default argument is one the compiler inserts if it isn’t specified in the function call. Thus, the calls f(“hello”), f(“hi”, 1), and f(“howdy”, 2, ‘c’) can all be calls to the same function. They could also be calls to three overloaded functions, but when the argument lists are this similar, you’ll usually want similar behavior, which calls for a single function.

Function overloading and default arguments really aren’t very complicated. By the time you reach the end of this chapter, you’ll understand when to use them and the underlying mechanisms that implement them during compiling and linking.

More name decoration

In Chapter 4, the concept of name decoration was introduced. In the code

void f();
class X { void f(); };

the function f( ) inside the scope of class X does not clash with the global version of f( ). The compiler performs this scoping by manufacturing different internal names for the global version of f( ) and X::f( ). In Chapter 4, it was suggested that the names are simply the class name “decorated” together with the function name, so the internal names the compiler uses might be _f and _X_f. However, it turns out that function name decoration involves more than the class name.

Here’s why. Suppose you want to overload two function names

void print(char);
void print(float);

It doesn’t matter whether they are both inside a class or at the global scope. The compiler can’t generate unique internal identifiers if it uses only the scope of the function names. You’d end up with _print in both cases. The idea of an overloaded function is that you use the same function name, but different argument lists. Thus, for overloading to work the compiler must decorate the function name with the names of the argument types. The functions above, defined at global scope, produce internal names that might look something like _print_char and _print_float. It’s worth noting there is no standard for the way names must be decorated by the compiler, so you will see very different results from one compiler to another. (You can see what it looks like by telling the compiler to generate assembly-language output.) This, of course, causes problems if you want to buy compiled libraries for a particular compiler and linker – but even if name decoration were standardized, there would be other roadblocks because of the way different compilers generate code.

That’s really all there is to function overloading: you can use the same function name for different functions as long as the argument lists are different. The compiler decorates the name, the scope, and the argument lists to produce internal names for it and the linker to use.

Overloading on return values

It’s common to wonder, “Why just scopes and argument lists? Why not return values?” It seems at first that it would make sense to also decorate the return value with the internal function name. Then you could overload on return values, as well:

void f();
int f();

This works fine when the compiler can unequivocally determine the meaning from the context, as in int x = f( );. However, in C you’ve always been able to call a function and ignore the return value (that is, you can call the function for its side effects). How can the compiler distinguish which call is meant in this case? Possibly worse is the difficulty the reader has in knowing which function call is meant. Overloading solely on return value is a bit too subtle, and thus isn’t allowed in C++.

Type-safe linkage

There is an added benefit to all of this name decoration. A particularly sticky problem in C occurs when the client programmer misdeclares a function, or, worse, a function is called without declaring it first, and the compiler infers the function declaration from the way it is called. Sometimes this function declaration is correct, but when it isn’t, it can be a difficult bug to find.

Because all functions must be declared before they are used in C++, the opportunity for this problem to pop up is greatly diminished. The C++ compiler refuses to declare a function automatically for you, so it’s likely that you will include the appropriate header file. However, if for some reason you still manage to misdeclare a function, either by declaring by hand or including the wrong header file (perhaps one that is out of date), the name decoration provides a safety net that is often referred to as type-safe linkage.

Consider the following scenario. In one file is the definition for a function:

//: C07:Def.cpp {O}
// Function definition
void f(int) {}

In the second file, the function is misdeclared and then called:

//: C07:Use.cpp
//{L} Def
// Function misdeclaration
void f(char);

int main() {
//!  f(1); // Causes a linker error
} ///:~

Even though you can see that the function is actually f(int), the compiler doesn’t know this because it was told – through an explicit declaration – that the function is f(char). Thus, the compilation is successful. In C, the linker would also be successful, but not in C++. Because the compiler decorates the names, the definition becomes something like f_int, whereas the use of the function is f_char. When the linker tries to resolve the reference to f_char, it can only find f_int, and it gives you an error message. This is type-safe linkage. Although the problem doesn’t occur all that often, when it does it can be incredibly difficult to find, especially in a large project. This is one of the cases where you can easily find a difficult error in a C program simply by running it through the C++ compiler.

Overloading example

We can now modify earlier examples to use function overloading. As stated before, an immediately useful place for overloading is in constructors. You can see this in the following version of the Stash class:

//: C07:Stash3.h
// Function overloading
#ifndef STASH3_H
#define STASH3_H

class Stash {
  int size;      // Size of each space
  int quantity;  // Number of storage spaces
  int next;      // Next empty space
  // Dynamically allocated array of bytes:
  unsigned char* storage;
  void inflate(int increase);
  Stash(int size); // Zero quantity
  Stash(int size, int initQuantity);
  int add(void* element);
  void* fetch(int index);
  int count();
#endif // STASH3_H ///:~

The first Stash( ) constructor is the same as before, but the second one has a Quantity argument to indicate the initial number of storage places to be allocated. In the definition, you can see that the internal value of quantity is set to zero, along with the storage pointer. In the second constructor, the call to inflate(initQuantity) increases quantity to the allocated size:

//: C07:Stash3.cpp {O}
// Function overloading
#include "Stash3.h"
#include "../require.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <cassert>
using namespace std;
const int increment = 100;

Stash::Stash(int sz) {
  size = sz;
  quantity = 0;
  next = 0;
  storage = 0;

Stash::Stash(int sz, int initQuantity) {
  size = sz;
  quantity = 0;
  next = 0;
  storage = 0;

Stash::~Stash() {
  if(storage != 0) {
    cout << "freeing storage" << endl;
    delete []storage;

int Stash::add(void* element) {
  if(next >= quantity) // Enough space left?
  // Copy element into storage,
  // starting at next empty space:
  int startBytes = next * size;
  unsigned char* e = (unsigned char*)element;
  for(int i = 0; i < size; i++)
    storage[startBytes + i] = e[i];
  return(next - 1); // Index number

void* Stash::fetch(int index) {
  require(0 <= index, "Stash::fetch (-)index");
  if(index >= next)
    return 0; // To indicate the end
  // Produce pointer to desired element:
  return &(storage[index * size]);

int Stash::count() {
  return next; // Number of elements in CStash

void Stash::inflate(int increase) {
  assert(increase >= 0);
  if(increase == 0) return;
  int newQuantity = quantity + increase;
  int newBytes = newQuantity * size;
  int oldBytes = quantity * size;
  unsigned char* b = new unsigned char[newBytes];
  for(int i = 0; i < oldBytes; i++)
    b[i] = storage[i]; // Copy old to new
  delete [](storage); // Release old storage
  storage = b; // Point to new memory
  quantity = newQuantity; // Adjust the size
} ///:~

When you use the first constructor no memory is allocated for storage. The allocation happens the first time you try to add( ) an object and any time the current block of memory is exceeded inside add( ).

Both constructors are exercised in the test program:

//: C07:Stash3Test.cpp
//{L} Stash3
// Function overloading
#include "Stash3.h"
#include "../require.h"
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

int main() {
  Stash intStash(sizeof(int));
  for(int i = 0; i < 100; i++)
  for(int j = 0; j < intStash.count(); j++)
    cout << "intStash.fetch(" << j << ") = "
         << *(int*)intStash.fetch(j)
         << endl;
  const int bufsize = 80;
  Stash stringStash(sizeof(char) * bufsize, 100);
  ifstream in("Stash3Test.cpp");
  assure(in, "Stash3Test.cpp");
  string line;
  while(getline(in, line))
  int k = 0;
  char* cp;
  while((cp = (char*)stringStash.fetch(k++))!=0)
    cout << "stringStash.fetch(" << k << ") = "
         << cp << endl;
} ///:~

The constructor call for stringStash uses a second argument; presumably you know something special about the specific problem you’re solving that allows you to choose an initial size for the Stash.


As you’ve seen, the only difference between struct and class in C++ is that struct defaults to public and class defaults to private. A struct can also have constructors and destructors, as you might expect. But it turns out that a union can also have a constructor, destructor, member functions, and even access control. You can again see the use and benefit of overloading in the following example:

//: C07:UnionClass.cpp
// Unions with constructors and member functions
using namespace std;

union U {
private: // Access control too!
  int i;
  float f;
  U(int a);
  U(float b);
  int read_int();
  float read_float();

U::U(int a) { i = a; }

U::U(float b) { f = b;}

U::~U() { cout << "U::~U()\n"; }

int U::read_int() { return i; }

float U::read_float() { return f; }

int main() {
  U X(12), Y(1.9F);
  cout << X.read_int() << endl;
  cout << Y.read_float() << endl;
} ///:~

You might think from the code above that the only difference between a union and a class is the way the data is stored (that is, the int and float are overlaid on the same piece of storage). However, a union cannot be used as a base class during inheritance, which is quite limiting from an object-oriented design standpoint (you’ll learn about inheritance in Chapter 14).

Although the member functions civilize access to the union somewhat, there is still no way to prevent the client programmer from selecting the wrong element type once the union is initialized. In the example above, you could say X.read_float( ) even though it is inappropriate. However, a “safe” union can be encapsulated in a class. In the following example, notice how the enum clarifies the code, and how overloading comes in handy with the constructors:

//: C07:SuperVar.cpp
// A super-variable
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class SuperVar {
  enum {
  } vartype;  // Define one
  union {  // Anonymous union
    char c;
    int i;
    float f;
  SuperVar(char ch);
  SuperVar(int ii);
  SuperVar(float ff);
  void print();

SuperVar::SuperVar(char ch) {
  vartype = character;
  c = ch;

SuperVar::SuperVar(int ii) {
  vartype = integer;
  i = ii;

SuperVar::SuperVar(float ff) {
  vartype = floating_point;
  f = ff;

void SuperVar::print() {
  switch (vartype) {
    case character:
      cout << "character: " << c << endl;
    case integer:
      cout << "integer: " << i << endl;
    case floating_point:
      cout << "float: " << f << endl;

int main() {
  SuperVar A('c'), B(12), C(1.44F);
} ///:~

In the code above, the enum has no type name (it is an untagged enumeration). This is acceptable if you are going to immediately define instances of the enum, as is done here. There is no need to refer to the enum’s type name in the future, so the type name is optional.

The union has no type name and no variable name. This is called an anonymous union, and creates space for the union but doesn’t require accessing the union elements with a variable name and the dot operator. For instance, if your anonymous union is:

//: C07:AnonymousUnion.cpp
int main() {
  union { 
    int i; 
    float f; 
  // Access members without using qualifiers:
  i = 12;
  f = 1.22;
} ///:~

Note that you access members of an anonymous union just as if they were ordinary variables. The only difference is that both variables occupy the same space. If the anonymous union is at file scope (outside all functions and classes) then it must be declared static so it has internal linkage.

Although SuperVar is now safe, its usefulness is a bit dubious because the reason for using a union in the first place is to save space, and the addition of vartype takes up quite a bit of space relative to the data in the union, so the savings are effectively eliminated. There are a couple of alternatives to make this scheme workable. If the vartype controlled more than one union instance – if they were all the same type – then you’d only need one for the group and it wouldn’t take up more space. A more useful approach is to have #ifdefs around all the vartype code, which can then guarantee things are being used correctly during development and testing. For shipping code, the extra space and time overhead can be eliminated.

Default arguments

In Stash3.h, examine the two constructors for Stash( ). They don’t seem all that different, do they? In fact, the first constructor seems to be a special case of the second one with the initial size set to zero. It’s a bit of a waste of effort to create and maintain two different versions of a similar function.

C++ provides a remedy with default arguments. A default argument is a value given in the declaration that the compiler automatically inserts if you don’t provide a value in the function call. In the Stash example, we can replace the two functions:

  Stash(int size); // Zero quantity
 Stash(int size, int initQuantity);

with the single function:

  Stash(int size, int initQuantity = 0);

The Stash(int) definition is simply removed – all that is necessary is the single Stash(int, int) definition.

Now, the two object definitions

  Stash A(100), B(100, 0);

will produce exactly the same results. The identical constructor is called in both cases, but for A, the second argument is automatically substituted by the compiler when it sees the first argument is an int and that there is no second argument. The compiler has seen the default argument, so it knows it can still make the function call if it substitutes this second argument, which is what you’ve told it to do by making it a default.

Default arguments are a convenience, as function overloading is a convenience. Both features allow you to use a single function name in different situations. The difference is that with default arguments the compiler is substituting arguments when you don’t want to put them in yourself. The preceding example is a good place to use default arguments instead of function overloading; otherwise you end up with two or more functions that have similar signatures and similar behaviors. If the functions have very different behaviors, it doesn’t usually make sense to use default arguments (for that matter, you might want to question whether two functions with very different behaviors should have the same name).

There are two rules you must be aware of when using default arguments. First, only trailing arguments may be defaulted. That is, you can’t have a default argument followed by a non-default argument. Second, once you start using default arguments in a particular function call, all the subsequent arguments in that function’s argument list must be defaulted (this follows from the first rule).

Default arguments are only placed in the declaration of a function (typically placed in a header file). The compiler must see the default value before it can use it. Sometimes people will place the commented values of the default arguments in the function definition, for documentation purposes

void fn(int x /* = 0 */) { // ...

Placeholder arguments

Arguments in a function declaration can be declared without identifiers. When these are used with default arguments, it can look a bit funny. You can end up with

void f(int x, int = 0, float = 1.1);

In C++ you don’t need identifiers in the function definition, either:

void f(int x, int, float flt) { /* ... */ }

In the function body, x and flt can be referenced, but not the middle argument, because it has no name. Function calls must still provide a value for the placeholder, though: f(1) or f(1,2,3.0). This syntax allows you to put the argument in as a placeholder without using it. The idea is that you might want to change the function definition to use the placeholder later, without changing all the code where the function is called. Of course, you can accomplish the same thing by using a named argument, but if you define the argument for the function body without using it, most compilers will give you a warning message, assuming you’ve made a logical error. By intentionally leaving the argument name out, you suppress this warning.

More important, if you start out using a function argument and later decide that you don’t need it, you can effectively remove it without generating warnings, and yet not disturb any client code that was calling the previous version of the function.

Choosing overloading vs. default arguments

Both function overloading and default arguments provide a convenience for calling function names. However, it can seem confusing at times to know which technique to use. For example, consider the following tool that is designed to automatically manage blocks of memory for you:

//: C07:Mem.h
#ifndef MEM_H
#define MEM_H
typedef unsigned char byte;

class Mem {
  byte* mem;
  int size;
  void ensureMinSize(int minSize);
  Mem(int sz);
  int msize();
  byte* pointer();
  byte* pointer(int minSize);
#endif // MEM_H ///:~

A Mem object holds a block of bytes and makes sure that you have enough storage. The default constructor doesn’t allocate any storage, and the second constructor ensures that there is sz storage in the Mem object. The destructor releases the storage, msize( ) tells you how many bytes there are currently in the Mem object, and pointer( ) produces a pointer to the starting address of the storage (Mem is a fairly low-level tool). There’s an overloaded version of pointer( ) in which client programmers can say that they want a pointer to a block of bytes that is at least minSize large, and the member function ensures this.

Both the constructor and the pointer( ) member function use the private ensureMinSize( ) member function to increase the size of the memory block (notice that it’s not safe to hold the result of pointer( ) if the memory is resized).

Here’s the implementation of the class:

//: C07:Mem.cpp {O}
#include "Mem.h"
#include <cstring>
using namespace std;

Mem::Mem() { mem = 0; size = 0; }

Mem::Mem(int sz) {
  mem = 0;
  size = 0;

Mem::~Mem() { delete []mem; }

int Mem::msize() { return size; }

void Mem::ensureMinSize(int minSize) {
  if(size < minSize) {
    byte* newmem = new byte[minSize];
    memset(newmem + size, 0, minSize - size);
    memcpy(newmem, mem, size);
    delete []mem;
    mem = newmem;
    size = minSize;

byte* Mem::pointer() { return mem; }

byte* Mem::pointer(int minSize) {
  return mem; 
} ///:~

You can see that ensureMinSize( ) is the only function responsible for allocating memory, and that it is used from the second constructor and the second overloaded form of pointer( ). Inside ensureMinSize( ), nothing needs to be done if the size is large enough. If new storage must be allocated in order to make the block bigger (which is also the case when the block is of size zero after default construction), the new “extra” portion is set to zero using the Standard C library function memset( ), which was introduced in Chapter 5. The subsequent function call is to the Standard C library function memcpy( ), which in this case copies the existing bytes from mem to newmem (typically in an efficient fashion). Finally, the old memory is deleted and the new memory and sizes are assigned to the appropriate members.

The Mem class is designed to be used as a tool within other classes to simplify their memory management (it could also be used to hide a more sophisticated memory-management system provided, for example, by the operating system). Appropriately, it is tested here by creating a simple “string” class:

//: C07:MemTest.cpp
// Testing the Mem class
//{L} Mem
#include "Mem.h"
#include <cstring>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class MyString {
  Mem* buf;
  MyString(char* str);
  void concat(char* str);
  void print(ostream& os);

MyString::MyString() {  buf = 0; }

MyString::MyString(char* str) {
  buf = new Mem(strlen(str) + 1);
  strcpy((char*)buf->pointer(), str);

void MyString::concat(char* str) {
  if(!buf) buf = new Mem;
    buf->msize() + strlen(str) + 1), str);

void MyString::print(ostream& os) {
  if(!buf) return;
  os << buf->pointer() << endl;

MyString::~MyString() { delete buf; }

int main() {
  MyString s("My test string");
  s.concat(" some additional stuff");
  MyString s2;
  s2.concat("Using default constructor");
} ///:~

All you can do with this class is to create a MyString, concatenate text, and print to an ostream. The class only contains a pointer to a Mem, but note the distinction between the default constructor, which sets the pointer to zero, and the second constructor, which creates a Mem and copies data into it. The advantage of the default constructor is that you can create, for example, a large array of empty MyString objects very cheaply, since the size of each object is only one pointer and the only overhead of the default constructor is that of assigning to zero. The cost of a MyString only begins to accrue when you concatenate data; at that point the Mem object is created if it hasn’t been already. However, if you use the default constructor and never concatenate any data, the destructor call is still safe because calling delete for zero is defined such that it does not try to release storage or otherwise cause problems.

If you look at these two constructors it might at first seem like this is a prime candidate for default arguments. However, if you drop the default constructor and write the remaining constructor with a default argument:

MyString(char* str = "");

everything will work correctly, but you’ll lose the previous efficiency benefit since a Mem object will always be created. To get the efficiency back, you must modify the constructor:

MyString::MyString(char* str) {
  if(!*str) { // Pointing at an empty string
    buf = 0;
  buf = new Mem(strlen(str) + 1);
  strcpy((char*)buf->pointer(), str);

This means, in effect, that the default value becomes a flag that causes a separate piece of code to be executed than if a non-default value is used. Although it seems innocent enough with a small constructor like this one, in general this practice can cause problems. If you have to look for the default rather than treating it as an ordinary value, that should be a clue that you will end up with effectively two different functions inside a single function body: one version for the normal case and one for the default. You might as well split it up into two distinct function bodies and let the compiler do the selection. This results in a slight (but usually invisible) increase in efficiency, because the extra argument isn’t passed and the extra code for the conditional isn’t executed. More importantly, you are keeping the code for two separate functions in two separate functions rather than combining them into one using default arguments, which will result in easier maintainability, especially if the functions are large.

On the other hand, consider the Mem class. If you look at the definitions of the two constructors and the two pointer( ) functions, you can see that using default arguments in both cases will not cause the member function definitions to change at all. Thus, the class could easily be:

//: C07:Mem2.h
#ifndef MEM2_H
#define MEM2_H
typedef unsigned char byte;

class Mem {
  byte* mem;
  int size;
  void ensureMinSize(int minSize);
  Mem(int sz = 0);
  int msize();
  byte* pointer(int minSize = 0);
#endif // MEM2_H ///:~

Notice that a call to ensureMinSize(0) will always be quite efficient.

Although in both of these cases I based some of the decision-making process on the issue of efficiency, you must be careful not to fall into the trap of thinking only about efficiency (fascinating as it is). The most important issue in class design is the interface of the class (its public members, which are available to the client programmer). If these produce a class that is easy to use and reuse, then you have a success; you can always tune for efficiency if necessary but the effect of a class that is designed badly because the programmer is over-focused on efficiency issues can be dire. Your primary concern should be that the interface makes sense to those who use it and who read the resulting code. Notice that in MemTest.cpp the usage of MyString does not change regardless of whether a default constructor is used or whether the efficiency is high or low.


As a guideline, you shouldn’t use a default argument as a flag upon which to conditionally execute code. You should instead break the function into two or more overloaded functions if you can. A default argument should be a value you would ordinarily put in that position. It’s a value that is more likely to occur than all the rest, so client programmers can generally ignore it or use it only if they want to change it from the default value.

The default argument is included to make function calls easier, especially when those functions have many arguments with typical values. Not only is it much easier to write the calls, it’s easier to read them, especially if the class creator can order the arguments so the least-modified defaults appear latest in the list.

An especially important use of default arguments is when you start out with a function with a set of arguments, and after it’s been used for a while you discover you need to add arguments. By defaulting all the new arguments, you ensure that all client code using the previous interface is not disturbed.


Solutions to selected exercises can be found in the electronic document The Thinking in C++ Annotated Solution Guide, available for a small fee from www.BruceEckel.com.

  1. Create a Text class that contains a string object to hold the text of a file. Give it two constructors: a default constructor and a constructor that takes a string argument that is the name of the file to open. When the second constructor is used, open the file and read the contents into the string member object. Add a member function contents( ) to return the string so (for example) it can be printed. In main( ), open a file using Text and print the contents.
  2. Create a Message class with a constructor that takes a single string with a default value. Create a private member string, and in the constructor simply assign the argument string to your internal string. Create two overloaded member functions called print( ): one that takes no arguments and simply prints the message stored in the object, and one that takes a string argument, which it prints in addition to the internal message. Does it make sense to use this approach instead of the one used for the constructor?
  3. Determine how to generate assembly output with your compiler, and run experiments to deduce the name-decoration scheme.
  4. Create a class that contains four member functions, with 0, 1, 2, and 3 int arguments, respectively. Create a main( ) that makes an object of your class and calls each of the member functions. Now modify the class so it has instead a single member function with all the arguments defaulted. Does this change your main( )?
  5. Create a function with two arguments and call it from main( ). Now make one of the arguments a “placeholder” (no identifier) and see if your call in main( ) changes.
  6. Modify Stash3.h and Stash3.cpp to use default arguments in the constructor. Test the constructor by making two different versions of a Stash object.
  7. Create a new version of the Stack class (from Chapter 6) that contains the default constructor as before, and a second constructor that takes as its arguments an array of pointers to objects and the size of that array. This constructor should move through the array and push each pointer onto the Stack. Test your class with an array of string.
  8. Modify SuperVar so that there are #ifdefs around all the vartype code as described in the section on enum. Make vartype a regular and public enumeration (with no instance) and modify print( ) so that it requires a vartype argument to tell it what to do.
  9. Implement Mem2.h and make sure that the modified class still works with MemTest.cpp.
  10. Use class Mem to implement Stash. Note that because the implementation is private and thus hidden from the client programmer, the test code does not need to be modified.
  11. In class Mem, add a bool moved( ) member function that takes the result of a call to pointer( ) and tells you whether the pointer has moved (due to reallocation). Write a main( ) that tests your moved( ) member function. Does it make more sense to use something like moved( ) or to simply call pointer( ) every time you need to access the memory in Mem?

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Last Update:09/27/2001